Update, Tuesday May 28: We are suggesting that the majority of students who wish to take the Physics SAT do so on August 24 as opposed to June 1. There is just too much material that most physics classes omit, and spending some of your summer reading up on (especially) magnetism and waves will really bolster your score. Unless your class has already covered this material, or you have learned it independently, the August 24 administration will likely be your best option.
In the NYC area, we are able to work in person as well as virtually for this test. Please inquire and we can discuss.
In response to our last blog So many Physics courses! Which one prepares you for the SAT Physics Subject Test? we’ve had several parents inquire about the wisdom of their child taking the SAT Subject Test™ in physics after the first year of the two year AP® Physics 1/AP Physics 2 sequence. Since the AP Physics B course was split into a two year course beginning with the 2014 – 2015 school year, the already muddy question of what physics class prepares you for the test turned cloudier yet. Let ‘s begin by comparing the subjects tested by SAT Subject Test (according to the College Board’s own published materials) vs the subjects offered in AP Physics 1.
First, let me save you the trouble of calling the College Board and asking them. Their answer is “we offer guidelines as to what is in the course but the subject matter is up to the specific high school”. This makes some sense of course but one would have thought that when they split up the course, they would have considered whether one of those courses prepares you for a test that they also designed and administer. But let us look at the guidelines posted on their website for AP Physics 1 and AP Physics 2, and compare them to what an SAT Physics test, also published by the College Board, says it emphasizes.
Here are the “Topics Covered” section from an actual SAT Physics Subject Test, published by The College Board:
Topic % of test
I Mechanics 36-42%
A) Kinematics, such as velocity, acceleration, motion in one dimension, projectiles
B) Dynamics, ie forces, Newton’s Laws & statics
C) Energy & Momentum potential & kinetic energy, work, power, impulse and conservation laws.
D) Circular Motion ie uniform circular motion, centripetal force, torque and angular momentum).
E) Simple harmonic motion, ie mass on a spring, & simple pendulum
F) Gravity such as the law of gravitation, orbits & Kepler’s Laws
II Electricity and Magnetism 18-24%
A) Electric Fields, Forces, and Potentials (such as Coulomb’s Law,induced charge, field and potential
of groups of point charges, and charged particles in electric fields)
B) Capacitance, such as parallel plate capacitors
C) Circuit Elements and DC Circuits such as resistors, light bulbs, series and parallel circuits, & Ohm’s law
D) Magnetism such as permanent magnets, fields caused by currents, and particles in
magnetic fields, Faraday’s Law, and Lenz’s law
III Waves and Optics 15-19%
A) General Wave Properties, such as wave speed, frequency, wavelength, superposition, standing
waves, Doppler effect
B) Reflection and Refraction such as Snell’s Law, changes in wavelength, and speed
C) Ray Optics, such as image formation using pinholes, mirrors and lenses
D) Physical optics, such as single slit diffraction, double slit interference, polarization, color
IV Heat and Thermodynamics 6-11%
A) Thermal Properties, such as temperature, heat transfer, specific and latent heats, thermal expansion.
B) Laws of Thermodynamics, such as 1st & 2nd Laws, internal energy, entropy, heat engine efficiency
V Modern Physics 6-11%
A) Quantum Phenomena, photons, photoelectric effect
B) Atomic, the Rutherford and Bohr models, atomic energy levels, atomic spectra
C) Nuclear and Particle Physics such as radioactivity, nuclear reactions, fundamental particles
D) Relativity such as time dilation, length contraction, mass energy equivalence
VI Miscellaneous 4-9%
A) General such as history of physics and general q’s that overlap several major topics
B) Analytical Skills ie graphical analysis, measurement and math skills
C) Contemporary Physics, ie astrophysics, superconductivity and chaos theory
Now, taking the following “About the AP Physics 1 and 2 courses” from the College Board’s website (http://media.collegeboard.com/digitalServices/pdf/ap/ap-physics-1-2-course-and-exam-description.pdf, pages 5-6), the following topics are listed under “AP Physics 1”
- •Dynamics: Newton’s Laws
- •Simple Harmonic Motion: simple pendulum and mass-spring systems
- •Impulse, linear momentum, and conservations of linear momentum: collisions
- •Work, energy, and conservation of energy
- •Rotational Motion: torque, rotational kinematics and energy, rotational dynamics, and conservation of angular momentum.
- •Electrostatics: electric charge and electric force
- •DC Circuits: resistors only
- •Mechanical waves and sound
So, let’s consider an example where the school teaches AP Physics 1 exactly as recommended by The College Board (and keep in mind, many schools will not). We see that relative to the SAT Physics Subject test certain content is missing. In particular, starting with (on the AP 1 course description) “Electrostatics: electric charge and electric force” and going forward, the AP Physics 1 course seems to omit much of what the SAT Physics Subject test covers. So if we look back at the topics for the SAT Subject test, we see topics from items IV and V are not covered by AP 1. The course omits all of heat and thermodynamics, and also modern physics. That accounts for (using percentage by topic estimates published with the test), 12 – 22 % of the test questions. Again based on their course description, we can also safely assume that quite a bit from topics II (electricity and magnetism, 18-24%) and III (waves and optics, 15-19%) are not covered in sufficient depth. If we assume, say, half of that material is omitted from the course, that is an additional ~ 16-22% of the questions a Physics SAT test may ask, so…
If you take the Physics SAT after AP Physics 1, taught using the College Board guidelines, that course will omit material tested on between 31-51% of the questions.
But take heart, because all is not lost! First, the curve on the Physics SAT allows a lot of leeway. You do not need to answer all of the questions to score north of 700, in fact you can leave quite a few blank. Also, the course generally ends around the first week of May, and that gives students a whole month to read up on a number of subjects on their own. It is safe to assume that a student enrolled in AP Physics is probably ambitious to begin with, so while this certainly imposes an additional burden it won’t be more than what they have seen all year – it is essentially the equivalent of continuing their class an extra month, except on their own.
Finally, a terrific option is for students to take the test in the late summer or, assuming they enroll in AP Physics 2, the October or November administration. We have tutored a bunch of students for summer and fall SAT Subject tests, and assuming they put in some work over the summer (practice tests, a few hours a week of reviewing notes), the drop off of what they remember is minimal. So if they intend to enroll in AP Physics 2, then by the time the October or November administration of the SAT Physics Subject test rolls around their class will have covered a whole lot more physics. This might be a terrific option for a lot of kids.
Also, there are a number of really good textbooks available for review, and you can pick one up 2nd hand pretty inexpensively. They vary in the level of depth but you do not need anything more than a fundamental level textbook; any edition of “Giancoli: Physics” will probably suffice.
Be sure to give us a shout if you have any questions!
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